Thursday, November 28, 2019

Interactive TV Essays - New Media, Science And Technology Studies

Interactive TV The Web and the Internet are the latest technologies to be harnessed by companies trying to develop interactive television. This paper reviews the efforts of technology companies and broadcasters to combine television and the Web in their products and activities, and how users are already using them both at home. It reviews some research on the way that TV and the PC/Internet are used at home, and suggests some way that the Web could be integrated with television use. Unlike earlier interactive television projects, where the innovation was largely conducted behind closed doors and among consortia of companies, the innovation environment in which Web-based interactive television is being developed includes a huge number of existing users, technology and content suppliers who play an active role the innovation process. The concept of social learning is suggested as a area of development of tools for understand the process of technical, social and cultural change around innovation of this sort. In particular the idea of poles of attraction is introduced to understand why a huge numbers of supply side players and users are orienting towards the Internet as a possible solution to interactive television. 1. Introduction Of all the visions of the future of television (note 1), interactive television (i-TV) is perhaps the most radical and powerful. In this vision the ubiquitous television set will change from being a device to watch television shows or films into a home terminal for access to and interaction with networked interactive technology, programmes and services. The possibilities and benefits of the technology seem self-evident, if only they can be made to work effectively and at a modest price. Many times we have been told to expect interactive television any day now. (note 2) However, after millions of dollars spent, and many pilots and service closures, most of us are still no closer to having interactive television than a few hundred searchable teletext pages, and some phone-in TV shows. In the efforts to create i-TV, numerous applications and technologies have been tried, with companies attracted by the possibilities of each new generation of technology, and responding to the continuous pressure to develop new products, be they technologies, services or programmes in order to maintain their share of consumer spending. The explosion of the Internet and Web is a new pole of attraction for interactive television developers that seems to solve many of the problems and uncertainties of earlier systems: all of a sudden the technologies, content, users and uses of interactive services are there and proving very successful, all that needs to be done it integrate them into television. For the analyst of new innovations in television, three issues arise as companies are attracted to the Internet and the Web as a solution to interactive television. 1. Instead of being controlled by a small number of corporate players, the technology and service of the Web and Internet are in the public domain, and changing fast. The innovation environment is diverse, heterogeneous, and involves a multitude of companies and most importantly users in shaping the technology and services, which makes management of innovation more complex and give the market a much stronger voice. 2. There is major uncertainty over the relevance of Web-style interactivity to the use of television. Many commentators believe that content and services on the Internet or designed for the PC terminal may not be relevant for many users of the television, while others bet on the explosion of e-commerce through TV Web terminals. 3. The television is no longer the only window for interactive services to the home. The PC is an increasingly common alternative, and is a more flexible and open platform or interactive services. The cheap web set-top box may restrict innovation and fix service and uses in a way that is frustrating to end users and service providers alike. What is more, there is an emerging paradigm in the technology industry of multiple 'low profile' terminals for interactive services. This could turn investment and attention away from both the PC and the television. What links these issues is the importance of the end users as active players in the innovation-diffusion process. It was end- and intermediate-users adopting the Internet and Web that attracted interactive television developers, and it is these users who are now directly involved in the innovation process. This paper uses social learning (S?rensen 1996) as an analytic framework of socio-technical change that includes an integration of end users in the innovation and diffusion process. Social learning goes beyond the development and diffusion of technology and content to include the

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Discussions of the Parts of a Speech

Discussions of the Parts of a Speech In classical rhetoric, the parts of a speech are the conventional divisions of a speech (or oration)- also known as arrangement. Roman orators recognized as many as seven parts: ExordiumNarratioDivisionProof (or Confirmation)RefutationDigressionPerorationEpilogue In contemporary public speaking, the major parts of a speech are often identified more simply as the introduction, body, transitions, and conclusion. See Examples and Observations below. (Dont confuse the parts of a speech in rhetoric with the parts of speech in grammar.) Examples and Observations From late fifth through late second century BCE, three traditions of handbooks characterized theory and instruction in rhetoric. Handbooks in the earliest tradition organized precepts in segments devoted to the parts of a speech. . . . [A] number of scholars have proposed that early handbooks in this tradition typically dealt with four speech parts: a proem that secured an attentive, intelligent, and benevolent hearing; a narration that represented facts of the judicial case favorable to the speaker; a proof that confirmed the speakers claims and refuted the arguments of the opponent; and an epilogue that summarized the speakers arguments and aroused emotions in the audience favorable to the speakers case.(Robert N. Gaines, Roman Rhetorical Handbooks, in A Companion to Roman Rhetoric, edited by William J. Dominik and Jon C. R. Hall. Wiley-Blackwell, 2007) The parts of a speech (partes orationis) are the exordium or opening, the narratio or statement of facts, the divisio or partitio, that is, the statement of the point at issue and exposition of what the orator proposes to prove, the confirmatio or exposition of arguments, the confutatio or refutation of ones opponents arguments, and finally the conclusio or peroration. This six-fold division is that given in De Inventione and Ad Herrenium, but Cicero tells us that some divided into four or five or even seven parts, and Quintilian regards partitio as contained in the third part, which he calls probatio, proof, and thus is left with a total of five.(M. L. Clarke and D. H. Berry, Rhetoric at Rome: A Historical Survey. Routledge, 1996) Classical Divisions in Prose The classical tradition of oratory was carried on for a great many centuries in oral performance. It was also carried on in written texts, most purely in written works that take the form of orations. Although they were not intended for oral performance, they translate features of oratory to the written word. Including some sense of the writer and the reader.Erasmuss Praise of Folly (1509) is a model example. It follows a form of the classical tradition, with Exordium, Narration, Partition, Confirmation, and Peroration. The orator is Folly, and she steps forward to speak to the crowded assembly that is her audienceall of us readers.(James Thorpe, The Sense of Style: Reading English Prose. Archon, 1987) The Classical Form of Jonathan Swifts A Modest Proposal The essay is organized in the manner of a classical oration, as follows: Exordium - Paragraphs 1 through 7Narration - Paragraphs 8 through 16Digression - Paragraphs 17 through 19Proof - Paragraphs 20 through 28Refutation - Paragraphs 29 through 30Peroration - Paragraphs 31 through 33 (Charles A. Beaumont, Swifts Classical Rhetoric. University of Georgia Press, 1961) Transitions in Contemporary Speeches To move from one to another of the three major parts of a speech (i.e., introduction, body, and conclusion), you can signal your audience with statements that summarize what youve said in one part and point the way to the next. For example, here is an internal summary and a transition between the body of a speech and the conclusion: Ive now explained in some detail why we need stronger educational and health programs for new immigrants. Let me close by reminding you of whats at stake. . . . Transitions are vital to effective speaking. If the introduction, body, and conclusion are the bones of a speech, the transitions are the sinews that hold the bones together. Without them, a speech may seem more like a laundry list of unconnected ideas than like a coherent whole.(Julia T. Wood, Communication in Our Lives, 6th ed. Wadsworth, 2012)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Local Responsiveness Strategies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Local Responsiveness Strategies - Essay Example That is not what has made a big name for the company, which started only as a local coffee bean roaster (Fabricant 1992) The stimulating culture of growth that is apparent in the organization is striking. During its early days, in the 1980’s the company had a habit of opening two stores every day (Ruth, 2007). The management of the company even tried to venture new markets such as the Midwest. Well, some of their prospects did not yield gain as expected, but the visionary strategies employed to achieve those goals directly and indirectly concern our question of the study. For instance using the global standardization strategy, the company can manage to stir local attraction from customers. This concept is usually developed through careful analysis of the status of the company in the global market versus the status that the company wished to be. Thus, it is a series of processes through value chain analysis to seek competitive advantage given the abilities of the company, Star bucks in this case. Findings would most likely show that sales and marketing was one key factor that needed to be addres sed in an effort to establish a powerful global presence for Star bucks. Another strategy that would be vital to Star bucks success in motivating local responsiveness is an effective transnational strategy. This implies that, through a firm organizational structure, a high level of co-operation and interdependence is established leading to a coordinated flow of activities especially the daily operations. It is important to note that the headquarters in Seattle is expected to serve as the vital link to the global interconnection (Fabricant 1992). The result of such a powerful strategy was a resultant domestic attraction thanks to initiatives such as advertising that appealed customers increasing sales. International strategies have also been incorporated into Star buck’s projects, with a view to